Early settlers named the whitebait species 'Galaxid', after the galaxy, as they thought that the spots on their backs looked like stars in the night sky.

Whitebait catch consists primarily of the young of three species: inanga, koaro and banded kokopu; inanga is by far the most commonly caught species.

Giant kokopu, short-jawed kokopu and smelt are also occasionally present in the whitebait catch along with the young of many other fish such as eels, bullies and trout.

Most whitebait species spend part of their life cycle in fresh water and part in the sea.  However, some have adapted to being landlocked in lakes and no longer have to migrate to the sea to breed e.g. dwarf inanga.


In late winter and early spring whitebait migrate back up rivers and streams, finally settling and growing in bush covered streams and swamps. The start of the migration is thought to be influenced by river flows (i.e. shortly after floods) and phases of the moon.


Mature inanga adults migrate downstream to lower river sections and estuaries to spawn in grasses covered by water during spring tides. The eggs remain in the grass until the next spring tide covers them again when the young hatch and are carried out to sea. The spawning habits of other whitebait species are not well known.


The five galaxiid species are found in many different habitats from lowland swamps to rocky streams. Their presence appears to be closely tied to overhead cover and waterside vegetation.


Giant kokopu live in swampy and heavily vegetated streams, often in pools over a mud bottom. Short-jawed kokopu, banded kokopu and koaro prefer fast flowing rocky or boulder bottomed streams with forest cover. Inanga are less "fussy" but are generally found in lower catchment waters.


One of the major problems affecting the whitebait fishery is the destruction of habitat for egg laying or adult fish. As whitebait adults tend to live in natural swamps and bush covered streams it is in the best interest of whitebaiters to ensure that adequate areas of these habitats remain.


The Department of Conservation has been active in identifying whitebait spawning habitat and arranging for its protection. Protection has involved seeking the co-operation of landowners to have spawning areas fenced off from stock. The Department sees the protection of whitebait spawning habitat as playing a major role in enhancing the lasting viability of the fishery.


Another major problem is barriers that stop young fish from getting to adult habitat.


Please note that whitebait are native fish and the giant and short-jawed kokopu are under threat in many areas!


Your assistance in keeping the whitebait fishery healthy not only benefits you, but the health of New Zealand's natural living systems. Don't take more than you need.





 Mangrove Discovery Programme

Experiencing Marine Reserves (EMR) initiated the development of a mangrove study pilot programme in 2006 with the support of The Department of Conservation. The pilot was aimed at developing a resource and experience for students and teachers wishing to utilise the new Whangarei Harbour Marine Reserve site at Waikaraka.

The pilot study was created and coordinated by EMR coordinator Kim Jones with support from EMR director Samara Nicholas.

Students from Whangarei Heads School took part in the EMR pilot programme which included:

• A classroom presentation about ‘magical mangroves’

• A snorkelling session in their school pool

• A field trip to experience and explore mangroves

• A field trip to snorkel in the mangroves

The students helped to do a beach clean-up at Waikaraka and also designed posters aimed at getting a new Waikaraka care code message out to the public.

Students really enjoy the EMR Mangrove Discovery Programme, and teachers say that the hands-on nature of the programme really adds to the students knowledge, skills and attitude.

The Department of Conservation have continued their support of this local programme allowing EMR to work with Raurimu Avenue School and Maunu Health Camp. EMR has developed a student resource and teacher resource as well as a Powerpoint presentation which is available to schools for non-profit educational purposes.


Please contact Kim at kim@emr.org.nz or 027 243 4818 to register your schools interest or to find out more.