Early settlers named the whitebait species 'Galaxid', after the galaxy, as they thought that the spots on their backs looked like stars in the night sky.

Whitebait catch consists primarily of the young of three species: inanga, koaro and banded kokopu; inanga is by far the most commonly caught species.

Giant kokopu, short-jawed kokopu and smelt are also occasionally present in the whitebait catch along with the young of many other fish such as eels, bullies and trout.

Most whitebait species spend part of their life cycle in fresh water and part in the sea.  However, some have adapted to being landlocked in lakes and no longer have to migrate to the sea to breed e.g. dwarf inanga.


In late winter and early spring whitebait migrate back up rivers and streams, finally settling and growing in bush covered streams and swamps. The start of the migration is thought to be influenced by river flows (i.e. shortly after floods) and phases of the moon.


Mature inanga adults migrate downstream to lower river sections and estuaries to spawn in grasses covered by water during spring tides. The eggs remain in the grass until the next spring tide covers them again when the young hatch and are carried out to sea. The spawning habits of other whitebait species are not well known.


The five galaxiid species are found in many different habitats from lowland swamps to rocky streams. Their presence appears to be closely tied to overhead cover and waterside vegetation.


Giant kokopu live in swampy and heavily vegetated streams, often in pools over a mud bottom. Short-jawed kokopu, banded kokopu and koaro prefer fast flowing rocky or boulder bottomed streams with forest cover. Inanga are less "fussy" but are generally found in lower catchment waters.


One of the major problems affecting the whitebait fishery is the destruction of habitat for egg laying or adult fish. As whitebait adults tend to live in natural swamps and bush covered streams it is in the best interest of whitebaiters to ensure that adequate areas of these habitats remain.


The Department of Conservation has been active in identifying whitebait spawning habitat and arranging for its protection. Protection has involved seeking the co-operation of landowners to have spawning areas fenced off from stock. The Department sees the protection of whitebait spawning habitat as playing a major role in enhancing the lasting viability of the fishery.


Another major problem is barriers that stop young fish from getting to adult habitat.


Please note that whitebait are native fish and the giant and short-jawed kokopu are under threat in many areas!


Your assistance in keeping the whitebait fishery healthy not only benefits you, but the health of New Zealand's natural living systems. Don't take more than you need.






The Whitebait Connection (WBC) is a national programme of experiential learning about freshwater conservation.  WBC  is managed nationally under the umbrella of the registered  charity Mountains to Sea Conservation Trust (MTSCT). The MTSCT Trust is extremely thankful to the Department of Conservation (DoC)for supporting WBC national expansion. This has allowed a wide variety of organisations to offer WBC. National expansion indicates significant interest in freshwater conservation matters and therefore potential conservation outcomes over time. WBC receives a huge amount of media hits, national and occasionally international, thus amplifying students’ and communities’ awareness throughout New Zealand. 

Regional Coordinator Contact Information:

Select coordinators names from the drop-down box on the 'Endorsed Regional Coordinators' menu button or click on their links below to view individual profiles and more contact details.

The Mountains to Sea Conservation Trust is the national body of the Whitebait Connection programme. The following Regional Umbrella Organisations have been approved by the national body and completed the relevant documentation, including the 'Organisation Agreement'. The following regional coordinators have completed the 'Training/Induction Checklist' and documentation, including the Health & Safety Declaration and have been endorsed by the national body as coordinators for the WBC programme.

Region (NZ) Endorsed WBC Regional Coordinators Endorsed WBC Programme Coordinators Approved Regional Umbrella Organisations


Kim Jones

Nicki Wakefield

Soozee McIntyre

Jasmine Pirini

Matua Buck Cullen

Mountains to Sea Conservation Trust

 Kim Jones

Kim Jones  Mountains to Sea Conservation Trust
Gisborne Murray Palmer Murray Palmer Nga Mahi Te Taiao 


Julian Hodge

Sarah Neighbours

Elizabeth Gibson

Zoe Studd

Island Bay Marine Education Centre
Canterbury      Department of Conservation
West Coast
 Cornellia Vervoorn  Cornellia Vervoorn  Department of Conservation